The Peaceable Table

A Vegetarian Journal for Quakers and Other People of Faith

The Peaceable Table is intended for the mutual support, education, and inspiration of people of faith in the practice of love for our fellow animals and observance of a nonviolent diet

Editorial: The Prophet From Nazareth

Jesus and the Vegetarian Question

One of the issues debated among religious vegetarians and animal-eaters is the question "Was Jesus was a vegetarian?" It is true that for some animal defenders, the question is unimportant; Jesus has played little or no role in their lives, and there are other looming contemporary issues that take up their time and attention. But in fact the question matters for all of us who care about our animal cousins, because the figure of Jesus is pivotal for millions of Christians. How we interpret the texts about him dealing with this issue makes a difference to the progress of our Concern.


For Christians who hold that every part of the Bible gives us models for our own lives, the answer to the question is a confident no. They find scenes in the gospels that show Jesus helping some of his followers to make a successful catch of fish, or multiplying fish (and bread) to feed thousands of people in the wilderness, or eating a piece of fish during a Resurrection appearance. They conclude that because Jesus ate fish and encouraged his followers to do so, the Bible gives a stamp of approval to meat-eating.


But those from the Christian tradition who do not see every passage of the Bible as necessarily authoritative for our lives may come to different conclusions. In a past issue of PT, it was suggested that even if Jesus did in fact accept fish-eating, his stance was not necessarily applicable to us because of major cultural differences between his situation and ours. He was ministering to peasants who were near the edge of subsistence or being pushed over it as a result of heavy taxation by Roman authorities and the Temple priesthood; in many instances they were losing their family farm plots as a result of crushing tax debt. If those living near the lake could catch some fish for their family, it might help them survive. (Those who earned a living by fishing were also being exploitatively taxed.)


Our situation as middle-class people in the twenty-first century is entirely different. We have many kinds of plant foods available; not only do we not need to fish (or hunt) to survive, we should know that commercial fishing and fish-farming are decimating the oceans at an alarming rate, just as factory-farming of land animals is bringing havoc to soils, groundwater, streams, lakes, and the atmosphere. Thus Jesus' stance regarding fish is no more binding on us than is his manner of dress. In fact, the pervading biblical theme that the world belongs to God, whose tender mercies are over all God's works, would rather require that we abstain from foods that threaten the earth and cause unnecessary suffering to animals.


Another view derives from the fact that a number of early Christians were vegetarian, specifically the Ebionites (meaning "the Poor,") who survived for several centuries and claimed Jesus' brother James as their spiritual forebear and the designated leader of the church after Jesus' departure. The Ebionites traced their vegetarian discipline to James, and quoted him as deriving it from the teachings of Jesus himself, whom they viewed as primarily a Hebrew prophet concerned with justice to the oppressed, both human and animal. (For more on this issue, see the Pioneer essay on James in PT 10 , May 2005.)


Jesus' Focus

In the canonical gospels, Jesus occasionally speaks caringly of animals; he says that God is conscious of the fall of every sparrow; he compares God's (and/or his own) longing to renew disordered Jerusalem with a hen's desire to gather her chicks under her wings. The fourth gospel includes a discourse in which he uses the ancient shepherd-sheep image to express the depths of divine love: "The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep." But Jesus' preaching and actions are mostly concerned with human beings. He denounces oppression; he has good news for the poor and exploited; he teaches listeners to be compassionate as God is compassionate. His central theme is that the Kingdom of God is in their midst. Thus animals are not really the objects in his prophetic message; however, it does have important implications for animals, as we shall see.


Roots of the Kingdom of God

Many readers may not know how far back in Hebrew tradition the Kingdom of God theme is rooted. Its seeds are found in the account of the establishment of the Covenant between God and Israel at Sinai, and beyond that in the Exodus, Israel’s foundational story. God is the Liberator who brings Israel out of Egypt, out of the house of bondage to a foreign emperor; and this God, who cares for the lowly and the oppressed, is to be Israel’s only ruler. The nature of the Covenant is complicated, with laws of many sorts, not all of them life-giving, formulated at various times. But the provisions that were almost surely central in the oral scriptures of the poor villagers aimed at economic justice: to safeguard each family’s inherited plot, and prevent families from being ruined by indebtedness and exploitation. They were based on God's loving and liberating compassion for the least among God's people.


In a later century, the prophet Samuel speaks out of this theme when the elders of the people ask for a king to lead them in war against the invading Philistines. Samuel resists, reiterating that God is to be their only monarch, and warning them that a king will become an exploiter: “He will take your sons . . . he will take your daughters . . . he will take your fields . . . he will take a tenth of your produce . . .” (I. Sam. 8:11-15) But God, with evident reluctance, tells him to give the petitioners what they request. (However, it is likely that many of the people were suspicious of this risky innovation.)


The second king, David, is described as “a man after God’s own heart,” and a royal/messianic theme arises in which justice is established through human kingship (as seen, for example, in some of the Psalms), a theme naturally promoted in royal and aristocratic circles. But this theme exists in tension with many of the common people’s commitment to the original state of affairs, a realm ruled by God only. And with good reason; already with David's son Solomon, who established a mini-empire, oppression had returned. Samuel’s warning that “he will take. . . he will take . . . he will take . . . ” in fact characterizes many of the kings as they are described by the chroniclers: they become the new Pharaohs of their day. In such situations, prophets arise to denounce, among other things, the oppression of the poor by the ruling royal and aristocratic powers of their time, and call the king and the people to return to God. The alternative will be disaster.

The disasters that do in fact befall Israel, namely, being conquered and exploited by one rising empire after another, are interpreted by later prophets as the result of earlier sins. They seek to find meaning in these catastrophes and sufferings by tracing them to covenant-breaking acts; they call the people to return to God. In certain passages they denounce the imperial oppressor, promising a new Exodus and a renewal of broken Israel. In some cases this renewal is to take place under an ideal Davidic king, sometimes under the compassionate and just rule of God only.


Jesus' Renewal of the Kingdom Proclamation
Jesus’ ministry must be seen as a part of this long kingdom-of-God tradition. He appears as a prophet in a situation in which the Roman rulers, their governors or client-kings such as Herod Antipas, and the collaborating priests of the Jerusalem temple (the High Priest was the Roman governor’s appointee) all demanded shares of the of the subsistence farmers who made up perhaps ninety percent of the population. Under this crushing triple tax burden, the village life in which most Galileans and Judeans lived was disintegrating. Unable to pay mounting tax debts, pursued by anxiety, many formerly self-subsistent families were losing their farm plots to the Romans and becoming day-laborers or worse.


Many of Rome's oppressed subjects may have fallen into despair and apathy, but because of the Jews' tradition of a compassionate and liberating God, there was strong resistance: this situation was not simply the Way Things Are. Festering frustration and rage were expressed in various ways, some covert, the most conspicuous being banditry and periodic violent revolts. These the dreaded Roman goon squads, the Legions, smashed with merciless ferocity: burning villages and even whole cities, enslaving or crucifying the fleeing inhabitants. Rome’s glorious empire was based on a protection racket.

Jesus’ prophetic renewal of the ancient message that a compassionate and just God is Israel’s only king is thus politically and economically subversive. It means that Caesar, who takes . . . and takes . . . and takes . . . and claims he is Son of God and therefore divinely authorized, is neither god nor king. Jesus message was that the kingdom of God comes by the unfaithful-faithful finding Immanuel, God’s giving, forgiving, and liberating presence, in their midst. By implication, they need not resort to the corrupted Temple, no longer a house of prayer but (as in Jeremiah's day) a den of robbers. Where the stresses of hunger and anxiety have led to alienation, abuse, and in-fighting in the villages, he calls for renewal of Covenant principles: share your bread (in communal meals); forgive the debts your neighbor owes you; lend to your neighbor in trouble; embarrass the hostile neighbor who insulted you with a slap on the face by turning the other cheek. Reach out even to the Roman soldier who demands that you carry his gear for a mile by carrying it for two miles.


The stories of Jesus' actions also proclaim the Kingdom of God. When he casts out multiple demons called Legion (!) from a homeless, psychotic man, and the Legion flees into pigs who rush into the water and drown, his hearers would understand that God would cause the shock-troops of the new Pharaoh to meet the same fate as those of the Exodus. (Since pigs can in fact swim, the details of this story need not be taken as literal history.) Stories of sea-crossings followed by the feeding of thousands in the wilderness also proclaimed that their one and only Monarch, who had once brought them out of bondage, fed them in the wilderness on manna, and given them the land, was at work through a new Moses. Stories of healings and a raising of the recently dead proclaim the presence of a new Elijah, renewing God’s rule in a time of apostasy and royal tyranny. (In confirmation, Moses and Elijah appear together with Jesus in the Transfiguration story).


The Cost of the Kingdom Proclamation
During his traveling ministry among the peasant villages of Galilee Jesus has skirmishes with the scribes and experts in the written Scriptures who function as retainers for the wealthy Temple elite (Jesus' message is probably based on the oral Scriptures of the illiterate poor). But when he goes to Jerusalem and makes a public, symbolic attack on the corrupted Temple itself, he is speaking Truth to Power--loudly. As a result, the chief priests and their bedfellows the Romans put him to the torturous death of a subversive: public crucifixion, Rome’s form of state terrorism. Some authorities think that the fact that no attempt was made to round up his followers is probably because Jesus’ message was nonviolent.

One of the reasons the political-economic dimensions of this message are hard to discern in the gospels is that the oral traditions that preserved it were probably not recorded until after the huge, hellish catastrophe, the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple, that crushed the Judean revolt of


66-70 C.E. (Mark was perhaps written down just around 70). During the succeeding years, Rome used its shining victory over the uppity Judeans in a blame-the-victim propaganda campaign. In this paranoid atmosphere, it became dangerous to identify with or support anything Judean; and the message of a crucified Jew was highly suspect by its very nature. Thus the subversive nature of the Kingdom of God proclamation was muted and downplayed, and some victim-blaming becomes part of the gospel story. For example, the brutal, ruthless Pilate (eventually recalled by Rome for ill-judged force) is presented as a well-meaning sort who wanted to release Jesus, and a Judean mob easily manipulated by the chief priests is shown demanding his crucifixion--both very unlikely. Needless to say, this dishonest defensive strategy was to bear poisonous fruit for many centuries.


The Prophetic Principle and Animals

The concept of the Kingdom of God was preached to villagers who might have been more or less capable of governing themselves, if only the gougers would leave them alone. But though their small, partially self-subsistent communities would then have been much better off than under the heel of Empire, they would still have been oppressive to women; and some might still have depended on animals as tools.


However, the work of the prophets, and in this case that of Jesus, does contain the seeds of liberation for both women and animals nonetheless. An important prophetic principle is illustrated by the Kingdom teaching in Matt. 23:9, " call no man your father on earth, for you have one Father, who is in heaven; neither be called masters . . . ", which implies a profound critique of patriarchy not clearly evident in earlier prophetic writings. The prophetic principle in question is that all social interactions are to be judged by the criteria of God's justice and compassion for all. But no single prophet can speak to all situations. Any one prophet may denounce a pattern of injustice and its attendant violence without seeing or acknowledging others. As we noted in the April 07 PT, "in the Exodus narrative the Israelites' lambs, and the horses of the Egyptions, are seen as disposable. Yet the core of the prophetic critique remains, a divine gift out of which later prophets are called to develop, correct, and deepen the message of earlier ones." See Slaves to Pharaoh .


By calling for the enactment of God's justice and compassion for our oppressed animal cousins, and especially when we demonstrate compassion as we call for it, we are showing ourselves to be true daughters and sons of the prophets--for Christians, especially of the prophet from Nazareth.

--Gracia Fay Ellwood


Sources: The Prophetic Imagination by Walter Brueggeman; Jesus in Context by Richard Horsley; God and Empire by John Dominic Crossan; Jesus by Marcus Borg; Sexism and God-Talk by Rosemary Radford Ruether; The Lost Religion of Jesus by Keith Akers, and other works.


The picture of King David is a detail from a stained-glass window by William Morris.

Unset Gems

"Few are guilty; all are responsible . . . The prophet's word is a scream in the night. While the world is at ease and asleep, the prophet feels the blast from heaven "--Abraham J. Heschel, The Prophets

"Sin, like some powerful astringent, contracted [the human] soul to the very small dimensions of selfishness; and God was forsaken, and fellow-creatures forsaken, and man retired within himself . . . ." --Jonathan Edwards, 1703-1758

"To [C.S. Lewis], all animals were "who," not "that," and either "he" or "she," never "it, writes Katrelyn Angus in the April 2010 Reader's Digest. (This is not invariably true; animals are sometimes "it" in The Horse and His Boy.) Rudyard Kipling also treated animals with grammatical respect. Mother Wolf, and all female animals, are always "she," while Father Wolf and all male animals are always "he." Even the villain Shere Khan is "the tiger who [not "that"] lived by the Waingunga River."

--Contributed by Benjamin Urrutia

The photo is of Biblical scholar and civil rights activist Abraham Heschel.

News Notes

The World Peace Diet makes Amazon's Top Ten

On March 13, Will Tuttle's book The World Peace Diet, which links nonviolent eating with peace in many areas of life, made Amazon's top ten sellers, holding its place for several days! This means that many thousand people are getting the word. Will thanks many devoted vegan groups for helping make this wonderful success possible. See World Peace and scroll down to the March 13 entry.

--Contributed by Lorena Mucke


Subway Restaurants Going Cage-Free

The Humane Society of the United States announced that Subway® restaurants will begin the process of transitioning to cage-free eggs for their US establishments. Effective immediately, the chain is going to use 4% of their eggs from cage-free facilities. To read the full article see Subway


--Contributed by Lorena Mucke

A Glimpse of the Peaceable Kingdom


This 2008 photo shows another cross-species fostering scene. The piglet, named Pink, was the "runt" of the litter and unable to nurse, so his caretakers gave him to Tink the dachshund, who had recently given birth. She accepted and nurtured him very lovingly, showing us what "bitchy" really means! See Dachshund and Pig

--Contributed by Barbara Booth



Dear Peaceable Friends,

I just finished reading the March issue of PT, and found it quite enjoyable. The statement the Animal Kinship Committee is firming up is great. Now I have to make a shopping list for the ingredients for the miso soup and chocolate cake recipes. The latter I plan to take to my church's next meeting of the womens' Bible study group. Our cell group of eight has two vegans, as well as me, the vegetarian! So they will appreciate a dessert that fits their diet.


About that photo of the man hugging the white tiger: . . . be assured that wherever it came from there are--or will be--other photo moments not so lovely. "Captive," "socialized," "tamed"--none of these terms mean that a wild animal is docile or safe to treat as we would a domesticated animal. It will be wonderful when the Peaceable Kingdom is a living-color reality and makes it possible for us to have safe contact with every one of God's creatures. But for now God has equipped them to protect themselves from us, which they unfortunately need. It's in our very human nature to touch what fascinates us--and nothing is more fascinating than a big cat! But we aren't equipped with adequate protection--they have hide, we have skin tissue--and they don't understand that. Their reflexes are so much faster. So even when they show us affection they can easily hurt us and not realize it. . . .


I worked for several years at Carolina Tiger Rescue. We had thirty tigers when I worked there, as well as a number of leopards--both spotted and black, snow leopards, cougars, clouded leopards, jaguars, servals, caracals, and ocelots. (The total number of animals living at the sanctuary now is down to about seventy.)


Those of us deemed dependable could take "Big and Dangerous" training from our founder, Dr. Michael Bleyman, a geneticist and zoologist. Like many others, though, I had no desire to touch full-grown tigers, even though all the animals there were socialized from birth or else upon acceptance as rescues. I only did "babysitting."


One of the regulations of the (federal) Captive Wildlife Safety Act of 2003 is that a sanctuary cannot allow direct contact between big cats and the public at their facilities. Two years before I left, this rule was carried further at our facility to apply to the sanctuary workers: a "no direct contact" rule regarding the adult large cats was put into place. All training was done from behind a fence. The reason for this was the history of "accidents" which resulted in permanent physical injuries, lawsuits, and emergency room visits. Even our founder was almost killed by his first tiger twenty years before. But he continued to deal directly with them, which some of us worried about. And for good reason. The horror stories we collected about large cats acquired as pets would scare Stephen King!


My experiences at Carolina Tiger Rescue convinced me that forcing a wild animal to "behave" when in contact with humans is just cruel. So until the Peaceable Kingdom I'm going to let them be themselves--on the other side of the fence.


That photo you displayed makes even me long to hug a tiger. And that's the problem I have with it. But everything else in the issue I really enjoyed!

Much love,
Linda Terry


We are indebted to friend Linda for this information and caution. A longing for the Peaceable Kingdom--the unfolding of the Hidden Unity in the Eternal Being--is present deep in the human soul, and such pictures awaken and strengthen this longing. We can and should pray and work toward the coming of this Kingdom, and rejoice in every glimpse of it; but at the same time, we must live in the world where violence and death often take place. We must use our heads as well as follow our hearts: "Be wise as serpents and harmless as doves."

--Gracia Fay Ellwood

Book Review: Making Rounds With Oscar

David Dosa, M.D. Making Rounds with Oscar. New York: Hyperion, 2010. 228 pages. $23.99 hardcover.


It is not often that a physician writes a book about a feline as a respected colleague, indeed a colleague who is by now undoubtedly more famous as a caregiver than he. But that is the case with Oscar, resident cat at the Steere House Nursing Center in Providence, Rhode Island, where he holds court on the ward dedicated to patients with Alzheimer's and other forms of serious senile dementia, many of whom were approaching life's closure. Oscar was the subject of a flurry of media articles and presentations three years ago, celebrating the animal's seemingly uncanny ability to sense when a patient was about to die. The furry attendant insisted on being with that person, cuddling up to him or her and purring in the last hours, not leaving until the mortician came to remove the body. (See the NewsNote Feline Hospice Worker in the Aug-Sept. '07 PT.)

Now here comes the book, authored by the geriatrician at the facility who first made Oscar's remarkable self-appointed career known through an essay published in the New England Journal of Medicine, and who has "made rounds" with him since, his wonder at the remarkable medical companion only increasing. Dr. Dosa was at first skeptical, inclined to make light of staff members who reported their observation of the cat's unusual activity. But as he observed patients over time he too could not help noticing how often Oscar was on target in knowing when his unique mission was called for, often before medical personnel had detected that the end of life was imminent. As Dosa interviewed a number of survivors of Oscar's earlier ministrations, in every case he found confirmation of the cat's remarkable ministry.

Being scientific in orientation, Dr. Dosa is inclined to look for a physical explanation, such as a peculiar subtle sweet odor that persons approaching death emit as certain cell structures fail. Supporting this view is the fact that cats, like many animals, have a far more sensitive sense of smell than humans. But it doesn't really explain why, when a declining resident named Saul was taken to the hospital, where he died, Oscar kept vigil for several days in his empty room. And, as Dosa is well aware, the theory of a death-scent hardly deals with the question of why this cat, alone among his kind, feels called to this particular kind of deathbed vigil, so comforting to people when they need him most, and also to bereaved relatives. To family, it was often a consolation to know that their loved one was never alone at the end. Oscar's calm, purring, yet persistent presence seemed at once to let them know it was time to say good-bye, and also that the transition can, like its watchkeeper, be a loving, peaceful, even purr-worthy event. In the end, Oscar is a mystery: does it really matter whether a scientific or supernatural mystery, or something of both?

Making Rounds with Oscar is a highly readable and perspicacious book, with many poignant stories. Dr. Dosa not only describes Oscar's quiet exploits well, but in the process imparts quite of bit of good information on senile dementia (though nothing is said about the probable animal-product link), on the life of a ward devoted to such patients, and on the colorful and very individual characters of many of its residents. Particularly memorable is the narrative of Frank and Ruth, a childless couple with no other family who were still deeply in love after fifty-plus years, when dementia struck Ruth. There are within these institutional walls humorous and poignant events, pathetic and demanding and distraught families, all kinds of human drama -- and Oscar is always there, cool and undemonstrative much of the time, but observing and awaiting his hours of unique service.


For animal lovers, this book will strengthen awareness that our feline, canine, and other companions -- and no less all other of our non-human kin -- are always full of surprises as to what they are capable of, and to what extent they are willing to embed their lives in ours. Indeed, a cat like Oscar challenges us to rise to his level of caring and faithfulness to the ministry to which he knows himself to be called.

--Robert Ellwood

Children's Book Review: Our Farm

Our Farm: By the Animals of Farm Sanctuary. Poems by Maya Gottfried, Illustrations by Robert Rahway Zakanitch. New York: Knopf, 2010. $17.99 Hardcover. Unpaginated (34 pages).

Maya Gottfried imaginatively and empathetically gives voice to her friends at Farm Sanctuary in a collection of poems, each featuring its "author:" Maya, a cow, also known as Grandmama Moo, the kind matriarch. Mayfly, a gentlebird of a rooster, whose motto is "ladies first." J. D., a piglet who loves to run. Gabriella, an open-minded hen. Clarabell, a nanny goat who likes to roam and wander. Four lively ducklings. Ramsey, a cautious ram. Whisper, a turkey who loves to dance. Bonnie, a peace-loving donkey. Violet, a pig who believes she is a flower. Ari and Alicia, twin kids (goat-type). Whitaker, a friendly calf. Diego, an incredibly beautiful duck.Cece and Barnaby, rabbits. Hilda, a very sweet sheep. Her poem is my favorite of the book. It feels like a prayer: "Thank you to the wind that cools..."

The illustrations, by Zakanitch, are in pencil, inks and watercolors. The style is close to photographic realism, but warmer. My favorite portrait is the one of duck Diego, who looks as beautiful as any peacock, in various brilliant shades of blue.

The book is meant for children, and it is certainly recommended for them, but it can be just as much enjoyed by grown-ups who love animals, art, and/or poetry. We may hope it will draw readers to Farm Sanctuary to make friends with the "authors."
-Benjamin Urrutia


Cream of Beet Soup
Serves 8 (serving size about ¾ cup)

3 T. Earth Balance® Buttery Spread
1 medium onion, chopped
6 cups vegetable broth
½ - ¾ tsp. sea salt, to taste
freshly ground black pepper , to taste
3 medium beets, peeled and chopped
1 medium potato, peeled and chopped
1 bay leaf
½ tsp. dried thyme leaves
¼ tsp. dried dill (leaves)
1 teaspoon lemon juice
3 – 4 T. vegan sour cream (see recipe below)

Heat the Earth Balance in a large soup pot over medium-high heat. Add onion; sauté until tender. Add broth, salt, pepper, beets, potato, dill, thyme, and bay leaf. Bring to a boil; reduce heat, and simmer, uncovered, 20 minutes or until beets and potato are tender. Discard bay leaf. Process in small batches (about 3). Return pureed mixture to pan. Warm soup over low heat for until thoroughly heated. Remove from heat, and stir in lemon juice. Combine ½ cup soup and the sour cream, stirring with a whisk. Divide soup evenly among each of 8 bowls. Top each serving with 1 tablespoon sour cream mixture; swirl sour cream mixture using the tip of a knife.

Vegan Sour Cream
Yields 1 ¼ cups

12 oz silken tofu, firm (1 aseptic package)
3 T. mild vegetable oil (such as safflower)
1 tsp. evaporated cane juice (organic sugar)
juice of 1 lemon
¾ tsp sea salt

Blend in blender on high speed until very smooth. Store covered in a glass container. Use as regular sour cream.

Chocolate Walnut Cake II (Gluten Free)
Makes one 9 inch round cake

1 cup walnut pieces
⅓ cup canola or safflower oil
¾ cup evaporated cane juice (vegan granulated sugar)
¼ cup + 2 T. cocoa powder
2 T. brandy
2 T. cornstarch
1 tsp. baking powder
¼ tsp. baking soda
¼ tsp. sea salt
¾ cup chickpea flour
¼ cup brown rice flour
1 ¼ cup vanilla soymilk

Preheat oven 350° F.
Place walnuts in bowl of food processor; process to form a meal. Add oil, sugar, cocoa, brandy, baking powder, baking soda, flours and soymilk. Process until smooth. Pour into a greased 9 inch spring form cake pan. The batter should not be too thin, but fairly pourable. Use a rubber spatula to scrape all the contents of the processor bowl into the spring form pan.
Bake for 40 - 45 minutes until toothpick comes out clean. Cool for several minutes; open spring form pan. When cool remove bottom of spring form pan and place on serving plate.

Last month I introduced my chocolate walnut cake made with wheat flour. I have some friends who eat gluten-free diets, so I created an alternative Chocolate Walnut Cake that they can eat. It was a great success. Enjoy!
--- Angela Suarez

Poetry: Alfred Tennyson, 1809-1892

from Morte d'Arthur

. . . . More things are wrought by prayer
Than this world dreams of. Wherefore, let thy voice
Rise like a fountain for me night and day.
For what are men better than sheep or goats
. . . .
If, knowing God, they lift not hands of prayer
Both for themselves and those who call them friend?
For so the whole round earth is every way
Bound by gold chains about the feet of God.

The Peaceable Table is a project of the Animal Kinship Committee of Orange Grove Friends Meeting, Pasadena, California. It is intended to resume the witness of that excellent vehicle of the Friends Vegetarian Society of North America, The Friendly Vegetarian, which appeared quarterly between 1982 and 1995. Following its example, and sometimes borrowing from its treasures, we publish articles for toe-in-the-water vegetarians as well as long-term ones.

The journal is intended to be interactive; contributions, including illustrations, are invited for the next issue. Deadline for the May issue will be Apr. 27, 2010. Send to or 10 Krotona Hill, Ojai, CA 93023. We operate primarily online in order to conserve trees and labor, but hard copy is available for interested persons who are not online. The latter are asked, if their funds permit, to donate $12 (USD) per year. Other donations to offset the cost of advertising (in The Christian Century) are welcome.

Editor: Gracia Fay Ellwood
Book and Film Reviewers: Benjamin Urrutia & Robert Ellwood
Recipe Editor: Angela Suarez
NewsNotes Editors: Lorena Mucke and Marian Hussenbux
Technical Architect: Richard Scott Lancelot Ellwood